China denies that it sells excess steel to other markets below the cost of making it, a move called dumping. But China does concede that it has too many steel factories making too much steel.
The trick is trimming that excess capacity, which is proving to be neither easy nor cheap. Steel making represents a reliable source of high-wage jobs in a country where economic growth has slowed compared with previous years. Steel also remains a key material for China’s manufacturing sector, the world’s largest.
“Steel is the food for China’s industry,” said Wang Guoqing, the research director at the Lange Steel Information Research Center, a Chinese industry group in Beijing. “It is in a key position for China’s development and infrastructure.”
The steel industry in the United States employs about 140,000 people, or less than one-tenth of 1 percent of the American work force. China’s steel makers, by contrast, employed 4.7 million workers in 2014, the last official figure released, or 0.6 percent of China’s labor force then. Nearly 60 years after Mao’s drive to make China a steel giant contributed to a famine that killed millions of people, the country now makes as much steel as the rest of the world put together.
Today, China’s steel sector represents the sort of bloated, wasteful industry that people both inside and outside the country say is holding back economic development. China in early 2016 committed to closing steel mills representing 100 million to 150 million tons of capacity over five years, or roughly a tenth of its capacity then. China closed 65 million tons of capacity last year and plans to close another 50 million tons this year, according to a speech in early March by Premier Li Keqiang.
Yet production remains stubbornly high, and new mills have continued to open. China’s steel mills produced a record quantity of steel last month. China hasn’t released more recent data on total steel capacity.
For now, China’s steel exports are shrinking, though it isn’t clear how long that will continue. China’s appetite for steel has improved in recent months as government lending and spending and a revival in its property industry lift the economy and encourage consumption. But the government has said it wants to rein in lending, concerned that the economy may be too reliant on ever-rising debt.
Mr. Trump’s advisers are using steel as part of a broader push against China’s excess factories. They are singling out steel while blaming Chinese industrial policies for overcapacity in other sectors, like aluminum and solar panels.
“To me the objective is to make it uneconomic, to make it expensive, to do something that has inefficiency in the market,” said Robert Lighthizer, Mr. Trump’s nominee to become United States trade representative, at his Senate confirmation hearing.
China calls that effort shortsighted, saying it has made itself an indispensable provider of high-quality steel to the world at a time when many American steel mills are aging. Advocates of a more confrontational American trade policy fail to understand this, said Li Xinchuang, the dean of the China Metallurgical Industry Planning and Research Institute, a government agency.
“I have explained this time and time again, but they won’t listen,” he said. “It’s like playing the lute to a cow.”
The Hangzhou steel plant, and the city that it is named after, represent China’s effort to shift its economy away from industries like steel. The city of at least 4 million urban residents is the hometown of Alibaba, the Chinese e-commerce giant, and also contains the headquarters of Geely, the Chinese automaker that bought Volvo from Ford in 2010.
The former factory looks a little like a postapocalyptic scene on a Hollywood movie set: cavernous warehouses moldered on a damp spring day, windowless and doorless. Conveyor belts and other steel equipment that might have scrap metal value had already been removed, leaving barren concrete tubes and walls. A long row of black hopper cars rusted on a railroad siding.
Migrant construction laborers camped in the evening in a dilapidated, three-story concrete building, resting after a long day of tearing apart old buildings as the next step in clearing the site. Tall grass, leafy bushes and even small trees had begun growing vigorously in open areas of the factory, sometimes pushing their way up through cracks in concrete plazas.
“It looks beautiful,” said Le Rong, a 42-year-old migrant worker involved in dismantling the complex. “I even told my wife and kids about it.”
A Hangzhou Iron and Steel spokesman declined to discuss what the company would do with the site, saying it had not yet been decided but that the company would find an “innovative” use for the land. Former steel mill sites in other prosperous Chinese cities like Hangzhou have often been redeveloped as real estate projects.